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How Does Climate Change Affect the Ocean

How Does Climate Change Affect the Ocean

This year brought some bad news on the climate change front: researchers found that ice is melting faster worldwide, and there’s a greater sea-level rise anticipated. The rate of ice loss each year has increased by 60%. A study of the Greenland ice sheet found that there are at least 74 major glaciers that are being severely undercut and weakened.

These statistics are dire for our oceans and the future of the planet. As glacier ice melts, it changes the chemical makeup of the oceans; and, since the oceans directly regulate the weather, changes to our oceans affect our food supply, air quality, disaster preparedness, and more. How climate change affects the ocean is complicated and touches virtually every aspect of our lives. Here’s a quick overview of the relationship between climate change and oceans, and why it’s imperative that we work to reduce ocean climate change.

Climate change and sea-level rise

There’s no question that climate change has caused sea levels to rise. But, sea-level change has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. Since 1880, the average sea level has risen eight to nine inches; a third of that gain has come in the last two and a half decades. Rising sea levels can be mostly attributed to meltwater from glaciers and ice sheets, as well as the thermal expansion of seawater as it warms.


Ocean Level Rise

Image Source

Climate change and sea-level rise are a big deal for coastal communities — and in the US, nearly 40% of the population lives in high population-density coastal areas. Around the world, eight of the 10 largest cities are near a coast. This puts a huge percentage of our population at risk for flooding, shoreline erosion, and storm hazards. Our infrastructure — roads, bridges, subways, power plants, water supplies, and more — are all at risk from sea-level rise.

[Read more: Flood Maps Are Outdated – Here’s How to Fix Them

Flooding isn’t the only danger of higher sea levels. Rising sea levels will impact our drinking water, food supply, and overall health. “As sea levels rise, saltwater intrusion into freshwater increases the salinity of groundwater basins and well water. This reduces crop yields and the availability of safe drinking water. It also increases the risk of hypertension, as well as vectorborne and diarrheal disease,” said one joint report by the Public Health Institute and the Center for Climate Change and Health.

Finally, climate change and sea-level rise will threaten wildlife populations and coastal ecosystems. Trees growing near the coast will struggle to find enough freshwater to grow; even those further inland won’t be able to survive repeated flooding by salty seawater. Wildlife populations that make their home along the coast will struggle to adapt to erosion, flooding, and changes in plant life. Sea birds and sea turtles that make their nests on the shoreline won’t be able to reproduce and will face extinction.

Ocean acidification and climate change

The on-shore effects of climate change are just one side of the story. The chemical make-up and temperature of the ocean are also changing.

Climate change is causing increased rates of ocean acidification. Ocean acidification is a process by which the pH of the ocean is reduced over an extended period of time, making the ocean more acidic. This is primarily caused by an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

“The ocean absorbs about 30 percent of the CO2 that is released in the atmosphere, and as levels of atmospheric CO2 increase, so do the levels in the ocean,” explained NOAA. “When CO2 is absorbed by seawater, a series of chemical reactions occur resulting in the increased concentration of hydrogen ions. This increase causes the seawater to become more acidic and causes carbonate ions to be relatively less abundant.”

As we emit more CO2, the ocean becomes more and more acidic. The pH has dropped by 26% over the last century (to become more acidic). What does this mean for climate change and the planet?

First, marine ecosystems will struggle to survive. Acidification particularly impacts shellfish and coral reefs — organisms that need carbonate ions to make their shells and skeletons. Acidification reduces the availability of carbonate ions, preventing these populations from thriving and disrupting delicate ocean ecosystems.

Through Sofar Ocean’s partnership with Aqualink, research teams are able to take advantage of the world’s largest real-time ocean data platform to visualize temperature and other data from coral reef sites around the world. By aggregating data and providing greater transparency to sensor and model data, researchers are able to pinpoint with greater accuracy where ocean acidification and climate change are taking their toll.

It’s not just marine ecosystems that are struggling due to ocean acidification. Warming ocean temperatures are bad for the fishing industry, too. Warmer oceans lead to toxic algal blooms. “Toxic algae produce domoic acid, a dangerous neurotoxin, that builds up in the bodies of shellfish, posing a risk to human health. As a result, many West Coast fisheries have been forced to shut down,” wrote the Union of Concerned Scientists.

Some scientists have linked ocean acidification to atmospheric warming — bringing us to the third impact of ocean climate change.

Ocean circulation and the climate

Ocean circulation regulates the temperature of our planet. It works like a giant “conveyor belt” to bring heat from the Equator to the higher latitudes. “As warm water from the tropics flows toward the poles in wind-driven currents near the surface, it cools, becoming denser and heavier, and eventually sinks. It then begins flowing back toward the equator in a slow journey deep in the ocean,” explained Inside Climate News.


Thermohaline circulation
Image Source

Critically, the Atlantic Ocean’s circulation has slowed by about 15% since the middle of the last century. Weaker currents are at the root of a host of problems: increased rates of ocean acidification, higher sea levels, more extreme temperatures (hotter summers and colder winters), coastal ice jams that impede marine shipping routes, and the collapse of certain aquaculture operations.

[Read more:  Tracking Changes in Surface Currents

The stats on ocean climate change are alarming. We know it’s time to lower our carbon footprint — an effort that starts with better data and more affordable technology to increase the breadth and depth of data collected. As our partnership with Aqualink shows, a unified knowledge base can lead to better strategy and planning to slow down the rate of ocean climate change. It starts with more affordable and more accessible data collection — the driving force behind Sofar Ocean’s Spotter buoys. To learn more, click here.

The original article by Emily Heaslip was originally published at Sofarocean

Featured Image Credits: Pixabay

Carbon Pricing vs. Carbon Tax: Understanding The Difference

Carbon Pricing vs. Carbon Tax: Understanding The Difference

When the CO2 we emit costs money, we generally produce less of it. Economists worldwide point to carbon pricing as the most effective way to reduce emissions.


Because carbon pricing reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the lowest cost possible, where that cost includes the monetary amount of efficiency measures a company takes on and the cost of the inconvenience resulting from making do with fewer goods and services that rely on fossil fuels.

Carbon Pricing is exceptionally effective because it eliminates the chance of a market failure – the unknown cost of external carbon emissions – at the source by pricing these costs.

So how does carbon tax fit into the equation? In this article, the GHG emissions management experts at SINAI provide an overview of carbon pricing and carbon tax. Gain an understanding of the difference between the two when it comes to effective emissions management.

What is carbon pricing?

Carbon pricing is a market-based approach to reduce carbon emissions (also referred to as CO2, greenhouse gas, and GHG emissions) that uses market mechanisms to pass the cost of emitting on to the emitters.  It aims to discourage the use of carbon dioxide or emitting fossil fuels in order to address the causes of climate change, protect the environment, and meet international and national climate agreements and pledges.

“Polluter pays” is a crucial aspect of the carbon pricing strategy. By putting a monetary amount on carbon, communities can hold emitters responsible for the consequential environmental and social costs of putting GHG emissions into the atmosphere, including increased risk of dangerous weather, warming temperatures, polluted air, and community health threats from the negative impacts on food and water supplies.

Carbon Pricing

Source: IEA


Putting a price on carbon also provides financial incentives for polluters to reduce their carbon emissions.‍

Carbon pricing provides a long list of significant benefits. It is one of the most robust policy tools available for fighting climate change. It offers the opportunity to decarbonize global economic activities by influencing the behavior of businesses, investors, and consumers. It also offers continuous technological innovation and new, clean revenue streams that are more productive and sustainable for corporations. In other words, the best-designed carbon prices provide three key benefits: they preserve the environment, promote funding in clean technologies, and boost revenue. ‍

What is a carbon tax?

A carbon tax is a fee that fossil fuel burning corporations pay as a result of government regulations. By fossil fuels, we mean oil, coal, natural gas, and gasoline. When these carbon-filled fuels are burned, they produce greenhouse gas emissions. These gases, such as methane and carbon dioxide, cause global warming by raising the atmosphere’s temperature. Flooding, heat waves, droughts, and blizzards, along with other extreme weather events, are a result of global warming.

The main objective of a carbon tax is to mirror the actual cost that burning carbon creates. Carbon taxes ensure corporations and consumers pay for the external costs they inflict on the wider society.‍

How does carbon tax relate to carbon pricing?

A carbon tax is a type of carbon pricing — the other primary type of carbon pricing is emissions trading systems or ETS.

A carbon tax sets an exact price on carbon by specifying a tax rate on GHG emissions or on the carbon amount found in fossil fuels, with the latter becoming more common. Carbon tax differs from an ETS in that the GHG emissions reduction outcome of a carbon tax is not defined in advance, but the carbon price is.

National and economic circumstances largely control the choice between using a carbon tax or an ETS. There are also more indirect ways of pricing carbon, including through fuel taxes, regulations that take into account the social cost of carbon, and the elimination of fossil fuel subsidies. GHG emissions may also be priced through payments for carbon emission reductions.‍

Setting an internal carbon price for your company

Many industry-leading companies are setting an ambitious internal carbon price to help consolidate their environmental impact. SINAI’s cutting-edge technology can help you make sense out of complex data by quantifying targets, identifying emissions gaps, and reviewing carbon budgets more seamlessly than ever before.

SINAI can help your company define costs and carbon pricing based on precise data analysis. You’ll be able to implement pricing mechanisms based on the most robust business approach possible and align your business strategy with segmented and transparent targets built around emissions pathways.

Setting an internal carbon price helps your company build resilience, and can strengthen communication in capital markets with meticulous datasets that are accessible and easy to understand, and prepare for increasingly demanding regulation. For a demo of our software, reach out today and see what SINAI can do for your business.

This article was originally published at Sinai Technologies

Featured Image Credits: Pixabay

Supply Chain Decarbonization: Corporations Must Consider

Supply Chain Decarbonization: Corporations Must Consider

New research published earlier this year shows how tackling supply chain emissions can be a game-changer in the worldwide battle against climate change. Net-Zero Challenge: The Supply Chain Opportunity from the World Economic Forum and the Boston Consulting Group looks at the top eight worldwide supply chains that produce more than 50% of global greenhouse (GHG) emissions. They find that several corporations can multiply their climate impact by focusing on supply chain decarbonization.

Global Emissions - Decarbonizations

Image Credits: WEF

On the other hand, even leading corporations struggle to set clear goals and standards for their suppliers and get the data they need.

How best can corporations build a meaningful pathway to deep decarbonization within their supply chains?

In this article, the GHG emissions management experts at SINAI explain what corporations should consider when getting to grips with supply chain emissions. We present practical and scalable ways in which corporations can achieve deep decarbonization, from setting a carbon baseline to automating data collection throughout your corporation’s supply chain.‍

Slowing down climate change ‍

The Paris agreement is a legally binding global treaty on climate change aiming to slow down climate change. Unfortunately, current pledges do not go far enough. Many agree that to hit the targets set, deep decarbonization is needed, particularly in global supply chains across a variety of industries. ‍

What is decarbonization? ‍

The term “decarbonization” is used to represent the process of reducing and removing the carbon dioxide, or CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent, meaning, all 7 greenhouse gases included), the output from a country’s economy. The most common way this is done is by decreasing the amount of CO2e released from active industries within each economy – including but not limited to utilities, transportation, consumer goods, construction, and materials.‍

A robust picture of emissions ‍

The first step every corporation should take to get a handle on supply chain emissions is to gain a complete view of what those emissions are. The GHG Protocol’s Scope 3 Standard provides corporations with a methodology that can be used to account for and report carbon emissions from companies of all sectors, worldwide.

Corporations should consider building a detailed view of emissions with supplier-specific data to set ambitious targets for reducing carbon emissions. You can take control of your supply chain’s carbon emissions by performing a carbon inventory.

You should be able to compare emissions sources and resource consumption together with quickly identifying trends and patterns. Ensure you can aggregate, sort, and filter your emissions data to manage risk better and help/support suppliers to find deep decarbonization opportunities. ‍

A detailed carbon baseline‍

Corporations should consider exploring historical activity data to project emissions as their business grows and changes, creating forecast baselines they can use to monitor progress.

Establishing a comprehensive emissions baseline for your corporation is vital. Baselines are built according to business growth, and you can combine these with supply chain emissions with different levels of detail, to generate multiple baselines according to additional premises. Use granular data to analyze suppliers that contribute the most significant emissions.

Emerging software can help corporations easily match procurement data with environmentally extended input/output factors, building a high-level picture of their supply chain’s overall carbon footprint. Corporations can also leverage predictive analytics on resource consumption and emissions trends to gain better insight and business intelligence. ‍

Automated GHG inventories  ‍

Corporations should consider engaging diverse partners in their supply chain in a meaningful way, assisting them in a value-based exchange of emissions data.

Work towards a flexible data collection process to move away from generic data sources and create custom emissions factors that you can track with ease.

Collaboration is crucial, and we know supply chain emissions data can be messy. By automating data collection, corporations can consolidate, analyze and organize data from various sources quickly and easily, leading to more accountable reporting and better decision making. ‍

Smarter carbon emissions strategies ‍

Corporations should look to optimize their carbon emissions strategy through a scenario and sensitivity analysis and enhanced risk management for deep supply chain decarbonization.

Intelligent, data-driven scenario analysis can future-proof your corporation and your supply chain, with a heightened understanding of your projected deep decarbonization pathways.

Accurate and precise data can show which assets of the corporation are most at risk. Explore any reduction opportunities that exist and what cost-positive opportunities may be worth investing in, in the long term. Suppliers that go over the same type of analysis, will ultimately reduce their scope 1 and 2, which will reflect back to their buyers’ scope 3. The overall approach helps everyone in the supply chain to reduce emissions, with their own individual definition of success.

Technology to help your organization to remain accountable ‍

Front runners in several global industries are using innovative and cutting-edge technology to better manage their supply chain’s journey to deep decarbonization. They have a complete view of carbon emissions throughout their supply chain and baseline definitions in place, reviewing more granular data of those with the highest emissions. They are working towards deep decarbonization through automated carbon inventories from suppliers and following carbon emissions strategies, backed by data.

SINAI’s GHG emissions management solution can help you achieve supply chain decarbonization. Our software provides a seamless way to measure, analyze, price, and reduce emissions. Supply chain carbon management doesn’t have to be difficult, with the right solution that’s customizable to your corporation’s unique needs, you can move closer to net-zero.

To see SINAI in action, reach out for a demo today.

This article was originally published at

Featured Image Credits: Pixabay

An Introduction to Sea Surface Temperature

An Introduction to Sea Surface Temperature

The ocean has been around for billions of years. Yet, we only started measuring oceanographic variables in the late eighteenth century. We’ve got a long way to go before we can fully understand it. 

What we do know is that it’s changing at a rapid pace—and at the crux of many of these changes is our warming global sea surface temperature. 

To get you up to speed, this post is an introduction to sea surface temperature, and we’ll be answering all the fundamental questions: 

What is it? 

How is it measured? 

What is the data telling us?

And most importantly, why is this information important?

What is sea surface temperature (SST)? 

Sea surface temperature (SST) is the water temperature close to the ocean’s surface. It varies mainly with latitude, with the warmest waters generally near the equator and the coldest waters in the Arctic and Antarctic regions. 

As the oceans absorb more heat, sea surface temperature increases, and the ocean circulation patterns that transport warm and cold water around the globe change.

How is SST measured?

SST was one of the first oceanographic variables measured, yet it is still a fairly new phenomenon. The first recording was in the late eighteenth century by Benjamin Franklin, who suspended a mercury thermometer from a ship while traveling between the US and Europe. SST was later measured by dipping a thermometer into a bucket of water that was manually drawn from the sea surface (yes, humble beginnings). 

The first automated technique was accomplished by measuring the temperature of water in the intake port of large ships in 1963. 

Today, SST measurement is obtained by satellite microwave radiometers, infrared (IR) radiometers, in situ moored and drifting buoys, and ships of opportunity. Different instruments measure the temperature at different depths. For instance, most buoys have sensors located at about 1-meter depth or placed at regular intervals along a tether line. When measured from space, sea surface temperatures represent a depth that is related to the frequency of the satellite instrument. For example, IR instruments measure a depth of about 20 micrometers, while microwave radiometers only measure a few millimeters. 

Satellite infrared data is merged with the temperature data drawn from ships and buoys to create a holistic understanding of sea surface temperature at a larger scale. We’ve come a long way from the bucket method. 

Why does SST data matter? 

While heat energy is stored and mixed throughout the depth of the ocean, the temperature of the water right at the sea’s surface—where the ocean is in direct contact with the atmosphere—plays a significant role in weather and short-term climate. The ability to measure it allows us to observe the global system and quantify ongoing weather and climate change

What is Sea Surface Temperature data telling us? 

Average Global Sea Surface Temperature



Due to global warming, the average global SST is on a steady incline. From 1901 through 2015, the temperature rose at an average rate of 0.13°F per decade. It doesn’t sound like a lot, but it’s severely impacting the ocean; sea levels are rising, and ocean circulation patterns are changing—disrupting marine ecosystems and even human livelihood.

Why should we care about rising sea levels?

As the water warms, two things happen. First, it expands as its temperature increases. Second, it melts glaciers and ice sheets. Together, these phenomena increase sea surface temperatures, and consequently, sea levels.

Rising sea levels lead to greater coastal erosion, stripping the coast of its natural protection consisting of sediment and wetlands. Each year, extreme weather events—such as cyclones, storm surges, and hurricanes—increase in intensity and frequency. Due to coastal erosion, communities are at greater risk of floods, and ultimately habitat and infrastructure destruction. 

We can’t stop rising sea levels, but we reduce their impact. Learn how improved ocean data can help coastal communities mitigate the risks associated with rising sea levels.

How does SST change ocean circulation patterns?

Ocean Circulation Patterns


Ocean circulation is the large-scale movement of waters in the ocean basins. The oceans have thousands of currents, gyres, and eddies that carry water around the planet. Their movements regulate the Earth’s climate and transport carbon, heat, and nutrients.

Together, these currents act like a giant conveyor belt that transports heat from the tropics to the higher latitudes. As warm water from the tropics flows toward the poles in wind-driven currents near the surface, it cools, becoming denser and heavier, and eventually sinks. Temperature and salinity drive this circulation—so changes in these variables will affect it. Warming waters are melting ice sheets and glaciers. In conjunction with increased rainfall, ocean water is becoming less saline (and less dense than saltier water), which is slowing the ocean’s circulation.

A Nature study reveals that the Atlantic Ocean’s circulation has slowed by about 15 percent since the middle of the last century

Which industries are being affected by increased SST? 

Four industries that are especially impacted by increased SST are the maritime industry, offshore oil and gas industry, agricultural industry, and fishing industry

The increase of extreme storms and other weather events along the coast can cause million and billion of dollars worth of damage to the maritime, offshore oil and gas, and agricultural industries’ assets and operations. The need for real-time data and warnings is incredibly important for monitoring and predicting the storms and their effects—to reduce damage and operation closures. 

The slowing ocean circulation patterns create inhabitable marine ecosystems for some species, driving them to cooler water and subsequently affecting the local food chain. There is an increase in the frequency and density of harmful algal blooms such as red tide. Additionally, scientists link increased SST to coral bleaching, leading to a decline in fish populations. Fisheries located in areas of rapidly warming waters are seeing severe decreases in fish stock—some to the point of collapse. Obtaining denser data can identify areas that need critical rehabilitation and help guide sustainability projects. 

The original article by Ayesha Renyard was originally published at

About Sofarocean:

Our oceans cover over 70% of our planet’s surface, drive our climate system, and over 90% of the world’s trade is carried by sea. Our ocean environment affects us every day, through weather, the food we eat, and the stuff we use. Yet, ocean data is exceedingly sparse, and we know more about the surface of the moon than the waters surrounding us. Distributed sensing has revolutionized digitizing on land and from space. Ocean’s are next.

Our goal is to create a data-abundant ocean and provide critical insights into science, society, and industries. As a first step, we deploy and grow the world’s largest real-time ocean weather sensor network which provides the most accurate marine weather information and forecasts to power industry-specific solutions.

We believe that more and better ocean data will contribute to a greater understanding of our environment, better decisions, improved business outcomes, and ultimately contribute to a more sustainable planet.

Featured Image Credits: Pixabay

Mitigating Climate Change

Mitigating Climate Change

For years (and we mean many years), the ocean helped us mitigate the early effects of human emissions by absorbing greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide and heat, from the atmosphere. As a result, more than 90 percent of the warming that happened on Earth between 1971 and 2010 occurred in the ocean. A selfless act by Mother Nature, but it’s catching up to us. Climate change, which describes long-term changes to temperature and typical weather, is accelerating at an alarming pace—and the impacts are hard to ignore. Let’s take a look at some changes to our ocean.

3 Ways Climate Change Affects Our Ocean 

Rising sea levels

Sea levels are rising at the fastest rate in 3,000 years. From 2018 to 2019, the global sea level rose to 6.1 millimeters. Sure, a few millimeters doesn’t sound like a lot, until you hear that the average, since 1993, has been 3.2 millimeters per year. That means that last year we doubled the global average from the past twenty years! The same report shares that the U.S. East Coast’s average is actually three to four times the global average. The ocean is rising, and it’s rising fast.

The two major causes are thermal expansion (warm water expands), and melting glaciers and ice sheets. Why should we care? Rising sea levels increase the amount and severity of floods and shoreline erosion. It may also destroy wildlife habitats on the shoreline, interfere with coastal farming, and contaminate potable water sources. 

Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is a chemical imbalance that stems from large amounts of carbon dioxide. Put simply, it increases the concentration of hydrogen ions and reduces the number of carbonate ions. Shellfish and other sea life rely on carbonate ions to grow their shells and thrive. But with fewer carbonate ions, shells become thin and brittle, growth slows down, and death rates increase. Since the Industrial Revolution, ocean acidity has increased by 30%. With large shellfish die-offs, the whole marine food chain is affected—not the best news for the multi-billion dollar fishing industry. 

Extreme weather events

With more heat in the atmosphere and warmer ocean surface temperatures, the world is experiencing an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme weather events. For example, research suggests that the number of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes—characterized by higher wind speeds and more precipitation—is steadily increasing. To make matters worse, sea-level rise and a growing population along coastlines will exacerbate their impact. We’re predicting that coastal engineers and planners will be busy in the coming years. 

Mitigating These Effects With Data

As demonstrated above, after years of emitting greenhouse gases, the effects of climate change are very evident. It’s time to collectively mitigate and reduce our carbon footprint. 

We’re going to come out and just say it—we believe it starts with better data. 

The current scale, pace, and practice of ocean scientific discovery and observation are not keeping up with the changes in ocean and human conditions. Current data is siloed and inaccessible—hindering a unified knowledge base for strategies and policymaking. 

Here are some ways that data needs to improve:

Affordability: According to the Global Ocean Science Report (compiled by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission) ocean research is currently led by a small number of industrialized countries. Why? Because they can afford investments in data technology. Many coastal nations are not involved in building this knowledge base simply because they can’t afford the tools. Research is expensive.

By providing real-time information in actionable forms, this technology is incredibly useful for driving innovation. In order to accelerate the co-creation of knowledge and strategies, these tools need to be accessible to developing countries as well. Affordability and accessibility is the driving force behind Sofar Ocean’s Spotter buoys, which you can read more about here. 

Open data sharing: A major stumbling block to universal data synthesis is ownership. Government agencies, research, and private companies are all key players in ocean data collection and management, keeping these insights locked away for their own specific purposes. 

Data tagging, federated data networks, and data lakes should be combined to create a new era of open and automated ocean data access. Governments can lead the way by declassifying and sharing data that are relevant to ocean science and management. They can also incentivize companies and researchers to share data by making it a condition for access to public resources, such as funding for ocean research, permits for coastal development, or licenses for oil exploration or fishing.

Making Waves Requires Momentum

A molecule of CO2 emitted in India or China has the same effect on the climate system as a molecule emitted in the United States. No matter where we are, climate change affects us all the same. 

Transformative changes require a unified approach. And we believe that starts with data.

The original article by Ayesha Renyard was published at

About Sofarocean:

Our oceans cover over 70% of our planet’s surface, drive our climate system, and over 90% of the world’s trade is carried by sea. Our ocean environment affects us every day, through weather, the food we eat, and the stuff we use. Yet, ocean data is exceedingly sparse, and we know more about the surface of the moon than the waters surrounding us. Distributed sensing has revolutionized digitizing on land and from space. Ocean’s are next.

Our goal is to create a data-abundant ocean and provide critical insights into science, society, and industries. As a first step, we deploy and grow the world’s largest real-time ocean weather sensor network which provides the most accurate marine weather information and forecasts to power industry-specific solutions.

We believe that more and better ocean data will contribute to a greater understanding of our environment, better decisions, improved business outcomes, and ultimately contribute to a more sustainable planet.

Featured Image Credits: Pixabay